Your doctor will perform an internal exam and at that point, take a pap smear which goes into a vial filled with a special preservative and the specimen is sent to the lab where it is processed and stained in the cytology department. Gynecological cytology specimens pap smear thinprep pap test principle a gynecological cytology specimen pap smear is an evaluation for the presence of abnormal cells, which may be indicative of malignancy or other conditions requiring treatment. The bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology fosp. A cytology report recorded as suspicious is not considered as diagnostic of cancer and unless supported by a positive biopsy as reported on a pathology report or by a clinical impression of cancer, these cases should not be abstracted the papanicolaou classification of cells for the detection of malignancy pap smear used in the past is as follows. Cytology sample collection and preparation for veterinary. Professor asastent of department histology, cytology and embryology khodorovska alla 2. Asc is subdivided into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ascus and atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high grade lesion asch clinical features in cervical smears, often related to sil, now or at later biopsy mod pathol 1994. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance asc. Residents ppap smearap smear bioline international. Women with a cytologic diagnosis suggestive of carcinoma, with or without a visible lesion, should have colposcopy and appropriate biopsies.
The authors have provided a general picture of the field, the details of which may be filled in by reference to the many fine sources available. Dec 22, 20 5 unsatisfactory for evaluation conventional smear 75 cells in this field, smear should be reported as unsatisfactory if all fields have these many or less cells unsatisfactory for evaluation conventional smear if 50 75% of the slide has this appearance, obscuring inflammation should be mentioned in the quality indicators section of the. Diagnosis of any pathology can be done with very few cells, but the more cells available. Infection by highrisk hpv types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 may be associated with precancerous lesions or cancer of the cervix. Cells are scrapped or brushed by a qualified physician, physicians assistant, nurse, or. Gynecological cytology specimens pap smear thinprep pap.
Cervical cytology sensitivity and specificity overall sensitivity. Histology is the study of the tissues of the body and of how these tissues are arranged to constitute organs. Cytology, or cytopathology, often requires the use of fine less than 20 gauge needle sampling to obtain cells to identify a pathological process. Download fulltext pdf cytopathology, lectures in general pathology for third year medical students chapter pdf available january 2010 with 3,414 reads. Sky lakes medical center cytology uses the bethesda 2001 reporting system for all gyn samples. The following outline is a brief reference to the information thatwill be contained in the cytology report. Allow slides to dry and send to lab in folder or container.
Abnormal uterine bleeding aub is a commonly encountered complaint in gynecology department. The aim of this splitsample study was to compare thinprep liquidbased cytology with conventional pap smear, relying on a laboratory with longterm experience of the latter. Comparative study of manual liquidbased cytology mlbc. The pap smear is a screening test and should not be used as the sole means of detecting cervical cancer. Cytology is a valuable method to screen for and prevent cervical cancer before programs are designed and implemented, a thorough knowledge of local conditions is indispensable important studies in many populations remain to be performed. George papanicolaou, after whom the famous papanicolaou pap smear and pap stain was named, was one of the initial pioneers who drove the attention to the. Pap smears, cytology and cchc lab work and follow up. Atlas on bethesda system for reporting cervical cytology. One of the most important concept in biology is that a cell is a basic structural and functional unit of living organism. It provides mechanical and skeletal support for individual cells and for the plant as a whole. Utility of manual liquidbased cytology and conventional.
Sample collection and smear preparation cytology samples can be collected from solid lesions by several techniques including. It is important to sample the cervix or vagina well. This section contains free ebooks and guides on cytology, some of the resources in this section can be viewed online and some of them can be downloaded. Role of diagnostic cytology, collection and preparation of material for cytodiagnosis, cytopreparatory techniques of serous effusions, fixation of cytology specimens, staining methods in cytology. As the drawing shows, the cervix is the lower, narrower part of the uterus. The papanicolaou classification of cells for the detection of malignancy pap smear used in the past is. Cells are scrapped or brushed by a qualified physician, physicians assistant, nurse, or technician. This book is concerned with a discussion of the basic facts, concepts, and problems of cellular biology.
Pdf a comparison of liquidbased cytology and pap smear. Lab supplies, lab equipment, laboratory supplies, encompass, scientific, preferred, vendors, filter paper, balances, mixers, centrifuge, chemicals, solvents, high. Papanicolaou test also called pap smear, pap test, cervical smear, or smear test is a screening test used to det. Is the study of cells structures and their functions a cell is an organized independent mass of protoplasm nucleus and cytoplasm which makes the basic primary structure of an organism. Download fulltext pdf a new, liquidbased cytology technique article pdf available in acta cytologica 472. Pap smear cervical cancer cytopathology free 30day. Fine needle aspiration cytology is less costly than surgical biopsy in both sample collection and laboratory analysis. Pdf a comparison of liquidbased cytology and pap smear as. Conventional pap smear and liquid based cytology for cervical. Manual liquid based cytology in diagnosis of gynecologic.
The most common cause of unsatisfactory smear on pap spin was scant cellularity in 3 cases 1. Alternatively, cells can be harvested via a direct impressed iatrogenic material or fluid preparations, via lavage or invivo exfoliation into an effusion. With 5,28, 000 new cases every year, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide, after breast, colorectal, and lung cancers. The pap test pap smear, papanicolaou test is a screening test used in gynecology. Pap smear analysis and reports are all based on a medical terminology system called the bethesda system. Manual for cytology pdf 44p this book covers the following topics.
Cytology specimen collection and processing gynecological cytology specimens pap smear thinprep pap test principle a gynecological cytology specimen pap smear is an evaluation for the presence of abnormal cells, which may be indicative of malignancy or other conditions requiring treatment. Use the entire slide and spread the material as thinly as possible. Pamlpshmc cytology uses the bethesda 2001 reporting system for all gyn samples. It allows development of turgidity when water enters the cell by osmosis since it is fairly rigid and resistant to expansion. Ii2a managing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma on cytology 17. Since its introduction, majority of laboratories have started to apply lbc technique in exfoliative cells and also in nongynecological aspiration like fine needle aspiration fna samples. Cytology is a valuable method to screen for and prevent cervical cancer before programs are designed and implemented, a. Papanicolaou test also called pap smear, pap test, cervical smear, or smear test is a screening test used to detect potentially precancerous and cancerous processes in the the endocervical canal transformation zone of the female reproductive system. Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women and the most frequent gynecological cancer in developed countries. Comprehensive cytopathology 4th edition pdf ammedicine this website provides over 0 free medical books and more for all students and doctors this website the best choice for medical students during and after learning medicine.
Ideal for cutaneous or subcutaneous masses since it avoids surface contamination. Mar 07, 2011 about 60%70% of mass of cell wall is water which can move freely through free space in the cell wall. Gynecological cytology specimens pap smear thinprep pap test. Free cytology books download ebooks online textbooks tutorials. Cytology pap smeargynecological specimen principle. The application of liquidbased cytology lbc in the field of gynecology cytology goes back almost three decades.
Patients with a normal pap smear do not develop cancer within 12 years. In the last decade, innovative technologies including liquid base cytology, automated screening and human. Conventional pap smear and liquid based cytology for. Colposcopic management of abnormal cervical cytology and. Specimen collection, pap smear, nonsterile, nonlatex, 510k approved, slide transport, monolayer preparation, white, removable brush end. A cytology report recorded as suspicious is not considered as diagnostic of cancer and unless supported by a positive biopsy as reported on a pathology report or by a clinical impression of cancer, these cases should not be abstracted. At the end of the test or after every question if you want you will have the possibilty to view the correct answers, and in some but not.
Cervical cancer basic facts on screening and the pap test what is cervical cancer. Pap smear screening is a multistep process that involves recruitment of patients, taking smear, making and reading slides and issuing reports to alert clinicians to take appropriate action. Each of the fundamental tissues is formed by several types o. Most information and illustrations in this book are extracted from the authors. The cytological specimens collected from fgt include cervical smear, vaginal. For very thin cytology smears and for blood smears, 5 or 6 dips in the fixative solution should be adequate, but for thick cytology smears, up to 120 seconds may. Cervical cancer basic facts on screening and the pap test.
Women with an agc n pap smear without an identifiable lesion at colposcopy should undergo a diagnostic excisional procedure. When these abnormal cells are present in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer, or cancer of the cervix. A gynecological cytology specimen pap smear is an evaluation for the presence. Abstractbackground liquidbased cytology technique enables cells to be. The advantages of lbc include rapid fixation, even distribution of cells. Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Pap smears are not perfect for a high grade lesion, the sensitivity of a single pap smear is only 6080% estimated false negative rate is 3050%. The paptest pap smear, papanicolaou test is a screening test used in gynecology. Obtaining good quality samples for cytology in practice. Samples often of equal or better quality than those obtained with the aspiration method see below. The test may also detect infections and abnormalities in the endocervix and endometrium. Free cytology books download ebooks online textbooks.
The stiff yet flexible brush head is made of polypropylene and has a protective tip to enhance the overall collection process and to. This article is from journal of cytology indian academy of cytologists, volume 31. Cross sectional study of conventional cervical smear, monolayer. A syringe piston handle can be used, leaving one hand free to. A papanicolaou pap smear test cervical cytology screening is one of the best tests to screen for. Pap smear free download as powerpoint presentation. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based. Cytology reference manual 2016 sky lakes medical center.
The following outline is a brief reference to the information that will be contained in the cytology report. Normal endocervical glandular cells, cubic or cylindrical, without secretion. Fineneedle aspiration cytology fnac is an established, highly accurate, and costeffective method for diagnosing lesions in different organs, including the breast. Any abnormal cell is significant regardless of specimen adequacy. Main purpose of the test is to detect precancerous lesions called squamous intraepithelial lesion sil, which are often caused by sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses. The pap smear is used to sample the female genital trac t for presence of cellular change s which may indicate cervical or uterine carcinoma or their precursors. Pdf cytopathology, lectures in general pathology for. Cytology by wilson this book is concerned with a discussion of the basic facts, concepts, and problems of cellular biology. Many advanced technologies involving sampling and smear preparation, or screening quality control have been developed to reduce the false negative cases. This monograph essentials of pap smear and breast cytology is prepared at the request of a large number of students in cytology who wish to have a small and concise book with numerous illustrations for easy reference during their laboratory training. Educational curricula for cytomorphology criteria, laboratory methodologies, and quality assurancequality control processes learned over the years from the pap test form a foundation on which the rest of cytopathology expands. Liquid based monolayer cytology, possibly combined with human papillomavirus testing, is replacing conventional smear tests for cervical cancer screening in. The smear showed fungal hyphae characteristic of mucor.1459 922 165 243 1313 861 361 1394 1241 348 433 1180 1413 1178 660 772 281 306 686 1388 130 933 176 1235 492 1212 410 1117 680 479 1237 327 915 197 267 1401 1287 361 453 88 793 637 1068 710 973 1152